Stakeholders

UNDP-ACIAC engages key stakeholders from all Arab countries with a primary emphasis on the project-signatory countries which currently include Djibouti, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia and Yemen. Key stakeholders include direct beneficiaries such as specialized anti-corruption bodies, key ministries, judicial authorities, audit institution and parliamentarians in addition to non-governmental stakeholders including businesses, civil society, and independent media, academic and research institutions across the region. The Project also partners with other leading organizations involved in supporting anti-corruption efforts in the region.

Partners | Beneficiaries | Others


Algeria - Ministry of Justice show/hide
[Arabic][French].
The functions of the central administration in the Ministry of Justice are regulated by Executive Decree No. 333 of 2004. The Ministry of Justice supervises the activities of the judicial authorities that settle civil, commercial, administrative, social and arbitration disputes. Through the “directorate of Penal Affairs and Pardon Procedures”, the Ministry of Justice also supervises the activities of public prosecutions, republic prosecutions, investigation bureau and judicial authorities that decide on penal acts, including corruption, The Directorate of Legal and Judicial Cooperation in the Ministry participates in drafting and formulating international legal agreements and proposing necessary amendments for integrating and harmonizing national legislation with international standards. Mr. Tayeb Beleez is the Minister of Justice.
 
Bahrain - Public Prosecution show/hide
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According to the Judicial Authority Law issued by Law Decree No. (42) of 2002, the public prosecution is a genuine branch of the judicial authority. The public prosecution exercises the jurisdiction granted to it by the Law, and is the sole body capable of filing and conducting a criminal lawsuit, except where the law stipulates otherwise. Within the same framework, public prosecution is indivisible as an investigation or an accusation authority. Any member of the public prosecution may replace his colleague and pursue the procedures initiated by the member who was replaced, however the rules of specialization should be observed in such cases. The public prosecution supervises prisons and other detention centers where criminal sentences are carried out. The public prosecutor is Mr. Ali Bin Fadl Al-Bouaynain.
 
Djibouti - State General Inspection show/hide
[French].
The functions of the SGI are regulated by the presidential decree n° 0222 of 2001. It is a supreme audit institution of the public sector that reports directly to the Prime Minister. It is in charge of administrative and financial audit over all public agencies and institutions, it gives opinion in all administrative reforms and receives reports from all audit and control agencies.
 
Egypt - Administrative Control Agency show/hide
[Arabic].
The Administrative Control Agency was established in 1958 as a monitoring department attached to Administrative Prosecution. It became an independent body by Law No. (54) of 1964. In 1980 its activity was suspended. Then in 1982 it was restructured and resumed its work as an independent body attached to the prime minister. Its functions include: follow up on implementation of laws; detect administrative, financial and technical violations committed by employees; detect crimes committed by non-employees against sound performance of public service; examines complaints by citizens concerning violation of laws by public employees or carelessness in performing their duties. The head of the Agency is Mr. Mohammad Ahmad Farid Al-Tohami.
 
Egypt - Central Auditing Agency show/hide
[Arabic].
This Agency was established by Law No. (144) of 1988 as an independent body that enjoys a public legal personality which is attached to the President. The main function of the Agency is monitoring State funds and funds of other public persons. The Agency practices financial monitoring over the administrative units of the State from an accounting side and a legal side. It also monitors local government units, public bodies, political parties and trade unions. The Agency assesses performance through supervision over the use of public funds based on economic efficiency and effectiveness. The Agency is entrusted with legal supervision of decisions related to financial violations. The Agency is headed by Mr. Jawdat Al-Malat.
 
Egypt - Social Contract Center show/hide
[English].
In cooperation with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the Information and Decision Support Center has established the Social Contract Center in May 2007 in order to monitor the implementation of the recommendations of the Human Development Report for the year 2005 and to follow up on Egypt's march towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
 
Egypt - Transparency and Integrity Committee - Ministry of State for Administrative Development show/hide
[Arabic]. 2007
The Transparency and Integrity Committee was formed by decree , No. 86 of 2007 issued by the Minister of State for Administrative Development based on the recommendations of the Council of Ministers. The Committee submits proposals to the Ministry with regard to formulating a national strategy for combating corruption and legislative and institutional reforms. it sets national indicators and criteria for measuring corruption and monitors administrative corruption and proposes mechanisms for closing administrative loopholes.
 
Iraq - Alliance for Integrity show/hide
[Arabic].
The commission of Integrity in Iraq, formed an alliance with 26 civil society named after the alliance for integrity. It aims at assessing UNCAC Implementation in Iraq, and assisting the competent authorities to detect corruption in various Iraqi institutions.
 
Iraq - Bureau of Supreme Audit show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The Supreme Audit Bureau was established by Law No. (17) of 1927. At that time it was called the Department of Public Accounts Audit. Later it was renamed the Bureau of the Public Accounts Supervisor. Now it is called the Bureau of Supreme Audit. The functions of this Bureau are regulated by amended Law No. (6) of 1990 and by the Order of the Coalition Authority No. (77) issued on 25.4.2004. According to these legal provisions, the Bureau is an independent government institution that acquires the status of a legal or artificial personality. It is entrusted with monitoring and auditing the accounts and activities of agencies under its jurisdiction; providing technical assistance in the areas of accounting and auditing and publishing accounting and auditing systems. The Bureau also investigates and reports all matters related to the efficiency of collection or levy, expenditure and use of public funds. The Bureau is headed by Mr. Abdel Baset Turki Sa'eed.
 
Iraq - Commission of Integrity show/hide
[Arabic].
The Commission of Integrity was established by order of the Coalition Authority No. (55) of 2004. Upon its inception it was called Public Integrity Commission. Then the Iraqi permanent constitution of 2005 considered it as an independent body subject to supervision by parliament and changed its name to Integrity Commission. Its functions include: being responsible for implementation of anti-corruption laws and public standards. Its main function has two aspects: a legal aspect and an educational informative aspect. The legal aspect covers investigating corruption cases; proposing anti-corruption legislation and committing Iraqi leaders to disclose their financial interests; and issuing the code of conduct for public sector employees. The educational and information aspect covers developing curricula for enhancing ethical behavior in public service; conducting research and studies; training public employees in this area; organizing seminars and information and media campaigns. The head of the Integrity Commission is Mr. Raheem Al-Akeely.
 
Iraq - Supreme Judicial Council show/hide
[Arabic].
The Judicial Council was reorganized by order No. (35) of 2003 and was renamed Supreme Judicial Council. The Council supervises the judicial system in Iraq independently of the Ministry of Justice. Its functions include: administrative supervisionh of judges and all members of public prosecutions, except members of the court of cassation. The Council also hears professional misbehaviour claims against judges and members of public prosecution. It also nominates qualified individuals for occupying judicial posts or as members of public prosecution. The Council promotes, upgrades, seconds or transfer judges and members of public prosecution. The head of the Supreme Judicial Council is Mr. Midhat Al-Mahmoud.
 
Jordan - Anti Corruption Commission show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The Anti-corruption Commission was established by Law No. (62) of 2006. It is attached to the prime minister and enjoys an independent financial and administrative legal personality. The Commission has the right to all necessary legal action to achieve its goals, signing contracts and litigation. It is also entrusted with designing public policy against corruption in cooperation with relevant agencies, and informing citizens about the serious impact of corruption on economic, social and political development. The Commission published periodic reports that show the risks posed by corruption towards State institutions and departments. The Commission coordinates with local, regional and international organizations with regard to enhancing and developing anti-corruption measures. It also investigates financial and administrative corruption, detects violations, collects relevant evidence, and brings offenders to justice. The head of the Commission is Mr. Abed Al-Shakhanba.
 
Jordan - Jordan Transparency Association show/hide
.
The Jordanian Chapter of Transparency International established in 2010.
 
Jordan - Ministry of Justice  show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The Ministry of Justice was established on April 11, 1921, as the executive arm of the Jordanian judiciary. The institutional goals of the Ministry of Justice are: 1- Raise the institutional capacity and competence of the Ministry of Justice and the judiciary, enabling them to perform their duties and provide their services with competence and efficiency. Minister of Justice: Mr Ayman ODEH. 2- Provide the necessary financial, human, and technical resources for the courts to improve judicial performance. 3- Modernize and develop legislation, particularly as relate to the economy and investment, and review regional and international judicial cooperation agreements. 4- Spread a legal culture among all sectors of society. The Judicial Inspection Directorate was first established in accordance with Regular Courts' Inspection Regulation No. 105 of 1965,It now exercises its authority under Judicial Inspection Regulation No. 47 of 2005, which is aligned with the strategic direction of the Jordanian Judiciary.The Directorate is responsible for inspecting trial judges, execution judges, members of the Attorney General’s office, and State Lawyers Assistants at least once a year for appointment or promotion purposes.
 
Kuwait - Ministry of Justice show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The activities of the Ministry of Justice are regulated by a Decree issued on 7/1/1979. According to this Decree, the Ministry is responsible for: organizing the necessary means for resolving disputes brought to all sorts of courts; hearing crimes according to provisions of the law; undertaking public suit cases by the public prosecution on behalf of society with regard to felonies and misdemeanor in terms of investigation, action and contention according to provisions of the law. The Ministry is also entrusted with supervising prisons, providing technical experience to justice and other state agencies. The Ministry strives to enhance legal and judicial cooperation with Arab, Muslim and foreign countries. The Minister of Justice is Mr. Rashed Al-Hammad.
 
Lebanon - Central Inspection Bureau show/hide
[Arabic].
The Central Inspection Department was established at the Prime Minister's office by legislative Decree No. (115) of 1959. The work of this department is regulated by several other implementation decrees the latest of which were Decision No. (21) of 1999 and Decree No. (2147) of 2000. According to the provisions of these decrees, Central Inspection supervises public agencies, departments and municipalities on the basis of annual and exceptional agendas and upon special commissioning. The Department strives to improve administrative methods, provides consultation to administrative authorities on ad hoc basis or upon request. The Department is also responsible for coordinating join tasks among several public departments and carries out studies and investigations demanded by the government. The Department is headed by Mr. George Awwad.
 
Lebanon - Court of Audit show/hide
[English][Arabic][French].
The Court of Audit was established by the Public Audit Law of 1951. According to legislative Decree No. (82) of 1983 amended by legislative Decree No. (5) of 1985 and by Law No. 132 of 1992, the Court of Audit is an administrative court in charge of financial judiciary and is administratively attached to the Prime Minister. According to these stipulations, the Court of Audit oversees public money and money deposited in the public treasury through two functions: an administrative function and a judicial function. It exercises the administrative function through advance supervision of budget implementation and through reports about its advance and after hand results, as well as through giving its opinion of financial matters. The judicial function is exercised through supervision of accounts and of whoever is in charge of using or managing public funds and deposited funds in the Treasury. The chairman of the Court of Audit is Mr. Aouni Ramadan.
 
Lebanon - Lebanese Transparency Association show/hide
[English].
The Lebanese Transparency Association (LTA), established in May 1999, has been affiliated with the TI movement since 2003. It is the first Lebanese NGO that focuses on curbing corruption and promoting principles of good governance.
 
Lebanon - Ministry of Justice  show/hide
[Arabic].
The Ministry of Justice exercises administrative supervision of courts, public prosecutions, judicial affairs and the Judicial Studies Institute. The Ministry strives to upgrade the efficiency and capabilities of its employees. It is concerned with establishing relations with national and international legal institutions, and strives to enhance exchange of opinion on different legal issues. The Ministry drafts laws and updates legislation. It aims to consolidate the independence of the judiciary and activate bilateral and international judicial operation. The judicial inspection commission assumes, under the supervision of the Minister of Justice, supervision over the following bodies: justice and administrative courts in the Ministry, Audit Bureau, notary publics, bankruptcy experts and agents, and provisional conciliation supervisors. The Minister of Justice is Mr. Ibrahim Najjar.
 
Libya - General Popular Committee for Justice show/hide
[Arabic].
The General Popular Committee for Justice is headed by Mr. Mustafa Mohammad Abd-AlJalil Fadeel.
 
Mauritania - State General inspection show/hide
[Arabic].
State Public Inspection was established by Decree No. (122) of 2005 as a supervisory body subordinate to the Prime Minister. It supervises the organization and financial and auditing management of all public agencies; companies financed by public capital and private corporations that benefit from financial government support. The State Inspection also conducts monitoring, auditing and investigation that aim at enhancing good governance, improving the performance of public administration, combating bribery, evaluating public policies and programs and audits public accounts. The head of the State General Inspection is Mr. Sidi Weld Ahmad Deyeh.
 
Morocco - Central Commission for Preventing Bribery show/hide
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The Central Commission for Preventing Bribery was established by Decree No. (2.05.1228) of 2007 to be under the authority of the prime minister. The Commission coordinates and supervises policies related to prevention of bribery. It also follows up the implementation of those policies and publishes information on bribery prevention efforts. The Commission suggests anti-bribery policies to the government, particularly with regard to cooperation between the public and private sectors. It also proposes measures for raising public awareness on bribery and contributes to enhancing international cooperation for combating bribery. The Commission assesses employed measures and implements government policy in the area of bribery prevention. The head of the Commission is Mr. Abdel Salam Abu Drar.
 
Morocco - Ministry for Public Sector Modernization show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The Ministry of Public Sector Modernization was re-organised by decree No. 2.06.82 of 10 November 2006 and decision of the minister in charge of updating the public sectors No. 2499.06 issued on 11November, both adressing the terms of reference and organization of the Ministry's central sections and departments. The mission of the ministry is to develop and ensure the implementation of a government policy on Civil Service and public sector modernization, with a view to strengthen good governance and lay the foundations for modern, effective, transparent and competent administration, and accelerate the pace of economic and social development in the country.
 
Morocco - Ministry of Justice show/hide
[English][Arabic][French].
The Ministry of Justice is responsible for: qualifying the judges, revising legal criminal procedures, establishing a family judicial system, establishing courts that handle business cases, consolidating the foundations of a state based on law and institutions, updating legislation, consolidating the independence of the judiciary and activating bilateral and international judicial cooperation. According to Article No. 385.98.2 of 1998 which define the jurisdiction and organization of the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry includes several departments. One such department is the Department of Criminal Affairs and Pardon. This Department is responsible for activating and supervising the work of public prosecution with regard to the Criminal code; revives public action before the special court of justice; tracking economic and financial crimes and monitoring the crime phenomenon. The Minister of Justice is Mohammad El-Tayeb Al-Nasseri.
 
Morocco - Transparency Morocco show/hide
[French].
Transparency Morocco (Association Marocaine de lutte contre la corruption) was officially founded in 1996 by a group of citizens to face an alarming situation of corruption and lack of transparency, ethics and good governance. The organization has been a TI National Chapter since 1999.
 
State of Palestine - Coalition for Accountability and Integrity - AMAN show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The AMAN-Coalition for Integrity and Accountability (TI Palestine) was established in the year 2000 as an initiative by a number of Palestinian civil society organizations working in the fields of democracy, human rights, and good governance. In 2006 AMAN was granted National Chapter status by Transparency International making it the third full-accredited chapter in the Arab World after Lebanon and Morocco.
 
State of Palestine - Ministry of Justice show/hide
[Arabic].
The Ministry of Justice assumes administrative supervision over courts, monitors the affairs of the judicial system and approving the draft budget of the judicial authority. The Ministry also oversees public prosecution through the Minister of Justice who appoints the work places of members of the public prosecution, transferring them to other court districts, submitting them to other court districts, submitting them to investigation or filing disciplinary law suits against them. The Ministry prepares legislation pertaining to establishment of the constitutional court, administrative courts, administrative prosecution and the State Cases Commission. The Ministry of Justice attends to capacity building of its employees, organizes the translation profession, establishes relations with national and international legal institutions, strengthens exchange of legal opinion on all human rights issues. The Minister of Justice is Mr. Ali Khashan.
 
State of Palestine - State Audit and Administrative Control Bureau show/hide
[English][Arabic].
It was established by law according to the provisions of Article (96) of the Palestinian Basic Law. The functions of the Bureau are regulated by Law No. (15) of 2004. The Bureau enjoys independent legal personality and full legal competence in exercising its functions. The jurisdiction of the Bureau include: monitoring the Palestinian Authority's expenditures, revenues, loans, advances and warehouses; implementing policies pertaining to monitoring and inspection for the sake of enhancing transparency and credibility. It is empowered to investigate the causes of deficiencies in performance and production and to identify the shortcomings in financial, administrative and technical systems. The Bureau also examines complaints made by the public and relevant issues raised by the media. It also monitors and reviews decisions pertaining to employees’ affairs, as well as grants, gifts, and contributions offered to government agencies. The head of the Bureau is Mr. Hahmoud Abu-Al-Rob.
 
Qatar - Ministry of Justice show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The first government in Qatar included a ministry of legal affairs called the Ministry of Justice established by Law No. (5) of 1970. This law stipulates that the Ministry of Justice organizes the work of courts, except Islamic courts, administratively and financially. The Ministry also supervises and inspects the activities of those courts. The Ministry is entrusted with observing the behaviour of judicial staff, checking their technical competence and regulating their administrative and financial affairs. The Ministry also conducts studies concerning legal affairs of other government ministries and oversees religious opinion given on various matters (Fatwa). Mr. Hassan Bin Abdullah Al-Ghanim is the Minister of Justice.
 
Qatar - National Committee for Integrity and Transparency show/hide
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The National Committee on Integrity and Transparency in Qatar was established in 2007 by decision n° 84/2007 of the Emir. It is a governmental committee dedicated to anti-corruption work and reporting to the Crown Prince. It is headed by the President of the Audit Court and includes representatives of ministries and other governmental bodies involved in anti-corruption work.It is in charge of developing and implementing a national strategy to promote transparency and integrity.It proposes mechanisms to promote transparency in procurement and develops a pact for concerned public officials, contractors and suppliers. It establishes communication channels with the public to receive complaints about corruption and takes necessary steps to verify and address these complaints in coordination with the concerned State institutions. it proposes related legal reforms to prevent and combat corruption taking into consideration UNCAC standards and requirements.
 
Sudan - Ministry of Justice show/hide
[Arabic].
The law that organizes the Ministry of Justice was passed in 1983 and is still effective. It defined the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice as follows: the Minister of Justice is the legal consultant for the State. He represents the State in all affairs that have a legal character. The Ministry strives to enforce the rule of law, improve the performance of the legal profession, revise and reform laws. The Ministry also encourages conducting and publishing legal research; formulates draft laws and provides assistance to State agencies in formulating their decisions and writing contracts and agreements. The Minister of Justice is Mr. Abdel-Baset Saleh Sbidrat.
 
Tunisia - Audit Court show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The Audit Court was established by Law No. (8) of 1968 that was revised and complemented by Law No. (17) of 1970 and Basic Law No. (82) of 1990 and by Basic Law No. (75) of 2001 and by Basic Law No. (3) of 2008. According to these stipulations, the Audit Court performs the function of a supreme monitoring body that oversees proper handling of public funds, and ensures respect of the rules of accountability, transparency and principles of good governance. The Audit Court audits and clears all accounts submitted to its attention and exercises supervisory and evaluatory powers over the activities of all those who handle public funds, as well as of all organizations that directly or indirectly funds from the State or from local communities. The Court Audit also receives and keeps declarations by government members, and other high-level officials concerning their earnings. The Audit is headed by Mrs. Fayzah Al-Kafi.
 
Tunisia - Commission for Monitoring Public Agencies show/hide
[English][Arabic].
The Commission was established by Decision No. (6) of 1982 and it reports to the Prime Minister. The Commission oversees State agencies, local communities and public firms. It also inspects all organizations that directly or indirectly receive funds from the State or from local communities. The Commission provides advice on legislative and organizational measures designed to improve the performance of public agencies and conducts needed research in its area. The Commission also executes all special tasks requested by the Prime Minister. The Commission is headed by Mr. Rida Abdel Hafeez.
 
Tunisia - Ministry of Justice and Human Rights show/hide
[Arabic][French].
The work of this Ministry is regulated by Order No. (1062) of 1974. According to this Order, the Ministry designs and implements judicial policy, prepares draft texts concerns judicial work and gives its opinion on all draft laws and organizational arrangements of other Ministries. It also prepares legal drafts for international agreements; organizes public judicial interests; supervises all agencies under its jurisdiction, as well as the work of judges and judicial assistants. The Legal and Judicial Studies Center was established by Law No. (3) of 1993 as a public institution which enjoys legal status and financial independence. The Center is supervised by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. It carries studies for improving national legislation and achieves their compatibility with international conventions. The Minister of Justice is Mr. Al-Azhar Bou Auni.
 
Tunisia - Tunisian Centre for Corporate Governance show/hide
.
(CTGE) is a branch of the Arab Institute of Business Managers. The IACE has launched the CTGE to promote locally and regionally corporate governance standards and to meet the needs of a new generation of investors. The Center is spurring all parties’ awareness of the importance of good corporate governance practices for sustainability and business performance.
 
Yemen - Central Organization for Control and Auditing show/hide
[English][Arabic].
This Agency was established by Law No. (45) of 1974 passed in Sana’a and its counterpart by Law No. (11) of 1972 passed in Eden. The two laws stipulated that this Agency is an independent Supreme Supervisory Agency of artificial (or legal) personality. Follow Yemen’s unification in 1990, the two agencies were integrated in one entity by Law No. (39) of 1992, Executive Regulation No. (2) of 1993, and a set of regulations that organize and manage the Agency’s work. The combined Agency was directly attached to the Yemeni President. According to these stipulations, the Agency monitors the revenues and expenditures of all government agencies; reviews, assesses and oversees all financial and economic plans of the State and private economic corporations that comes under its jurisdiction. The Agency is also entrusted with legal monitoring of all decisions made by agencies under its jurisdiction in the area of financial violations. The head of the Agency is Mr. Abdullah Abdullah AL SANAFI.
 
Yemen - Economic Media and Studies Center show/hide
[Arabic].
Economic Media and Studies Center is a Yemeni civil society organization specialized in media and economic studies, that was founded in August 2008. The Center seeks to a successful and transparent economic system through raising awareness, enhancing transparency level and increasing citizen participation in decision-making.
 
Yemen - High Authority forTender Control show/hide
[English][Arabic].
HATC was established by law no 23 of 2007, it is in charge of policy oversight and a monitoring body over public procurement to reduce resource leakage. It Recommends regulatory action to the Council of Ministers, receives, examines and render decisions regarding the complaints and grievances of tender offerors.
 
Yemen - Human Rights Information & Training Center show/hide
[Arabic].
Human Rights Information is a non-governmental organization aimed at promoting human rights values in Yemen and the Arab world. It is committed to all conventions and international declarations on human rights issued by the United Nations. The center is specialized in raising awareness of human rights through activities and training courses, meetings, intellectual and archive office, publications and periodicals.
 
Yemen - Ministry of Justice  show/hide
[Arabic].
The Ministry of Justice is entrusted with preparing draft laws and regulations related to the Ministry’s work and its agencies, as well as those related to the judiciary. The Ministry attends to building and equipping judicial buildings; qualifying judicial personnel and improving their performance; using modern information systems for collecting statistical data and judicial documents. The Ministry also supervises and carries out periodic and surprise inspection of all financial, administrative and technical activities internally and in courts. The Ministry of Justice creates judicial awareness in society at large; develops and promotes relations among the agencies of the judicial authority and other public authorities; promotes judicial and technical cooperation; formulates draft regional and international agreements pertaining to judicial matters. The Minister of Justice is Mr. Ghazi Sha’if Al-Aghbari.
 
Yemen - Supreme National Authority For Combating Corruption show/hide
[Arabic].
This Authority was established by Law No. (39) of 2006. It is an independent authority that enjoys legal personality as well as financial and administrative independence. The Authority sets and implements public policies directed at combating corruption. It also assumes the task of preparing a comprehensive national strategy for combating corruption, and implementing measures for involving local communities and civil society organizations in this effort. The Authority examines and assesses legislation pertaining to combating corruption and progress draft amendments of this legislation. It also receives reports proclamations and complaints with regard to corruption crimes, examines them, interrogate those involved and refer them to judicial authority. It also coordinates anti-corruption efforts between State agencies and civil society organizations. It also cooperates with States and international, regional and Arab organizations concerned with combating corruption. Moreover, this Authority participates in international programs for corruption prevention. The head of the Authority is Mr. Ahmad Mohammad Al-Ansi.
 
Arab Countries - AL JAZEERA show/hide
[Arabic].
Arab TV News Channel dealing with a variety of topics-political, international, local, sports, commercial, cultural, Islamic.


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